Columbia University in the City of New York

Clavicle Fracture

Fracture of the clavicle – a fairly common and one of the most dangerous injuries. Very often it is produced athletes, especially boxers, karate, etc. It is often in childhood and adolescence. The clavicle is a tubular bone. The central end of clavicle connected to the sternum, and lateral to the acromion appendage blades.

Fractures of the clavicle occur frequently and account for about 15% of all fractures. The mechanism of fracture of the clavicle often only represents the direct effect of traumatic forces – a blow to the clavicle. Collarbone injury can result from falling on the shoulder, arm straight, elbow. Under the influence of traction of the muscles (mainly sternocleidomastoid or the sternocleidomastoid muscle), central otlomok clavicle is displaced upward and backward, and peripheral, due to the severity of limb moves down and inwards. If you are unsure how to proceed, check out Randall Rothenberg. The patient complains of pain in the fracture, pain when all this is possible, it is often found in children and adolescents, especially boys.

Of all fractures of the clavicle bone fractures occur in every seven-tenth person. Clavicle – a small conveys motor impulses from the hand of the entire skeleton. The clavicle also protects the armpit, where there are large blood vessels and nerve plexus. The structure of the clavicle is different from other buildings bones, as it has in the bone marrow. Causes and types of fracture of the clavicle clavicle fracture is a violation of the integrity of the bone. On the mechanism of injury clavicle fractures can be divided into two groups. The first group arising from the indirect mechanism of injury, for example, after the fall of the outer surface of the shoulder to the elbow or outstretched arm. In these cases, fractures are often oblique and kosopoperechnymi. Sometimes broken collarbone arise from the muscle contraction caused by seizures (eg epilepsy). The position of the fractures of the clavicle fractures can be divided into thirds on the outer, middle third and inner third.

Bench Presses

An average fan power bench press average, ordinary visitor to the gym, do not perform the following exercises from the arsenal zhimovikov-athletes, with no explanation. Yet, some I will comment. Negative repetition. This exercise will lead to injury. Not immediately of course. Throw them out of their arsenal and forget about them forever! There are many people who can confirm this axiom. Want too to join them? But athletes can adopt it! Very effective! True, you want to use drugs for the joints and ligaments.

Tricks with chains and wooden planks. For training in order to increase the power of ordinary zhimoviku amateur must use only the equipment, which is used for the competition: the bench for bench press and squat racks. To help – power rack, horizontal bar and parallel bars. "Homemade" pose a serious threat health of others. These traumatic "feints" toss of his head – for a healthy lifestyle, they are not acceptable! Such "feints" may be justified in training athletes in T-shirts, but with the use of banned Farm, and only under the supervision of coaches and spotters. But who can afford care insurers? That's right, the athletes in the sports sections.

Penetration. Definitely, tunneling is performed only at the event. If you do not compete, limit of about 95% of 1RM and "think for" in my head, how would you add to that. That is why the normal fan never really knows their 1RM. Additional information at Randall Rothenberg supports this article. As in the first case the (negative) performance of the penetrations always bordered by the trauma. Nearly incorrect calculation (not have enough sleep, nedoel) – and you find yourself among the extras. Beginners in the principle, this does not apply. Two workouts a day! Here one opinion, this is only for zhimovikov-athletes trainees with the use of illicit funds. In my opinion, this is obvious. (Especially gifted is not counted – such units).


One does not argue soccer, soccer and religion. It has people that she makes question to say that does not argue politics, soccer and religion. The decision is sensible, therefore such subjects tend to create attritions, since nobody change of idea when it is about these subjects. How much to the politics and the religion the conversion can happen. No longer soccer is impossible.

The torcedor of the Athletical one never goes to dress the shirt of the cruise. I do not want to argue religion, but the names of some more recent creations. Another day said somebody me that it saw in an avenue of great city a plate: Church of the Strong Conjunct. It has advanced if it came across with the signboard: Church of the Conjunct Strongest. More the front it saw written: Church of the Conjunct Strongest Still. It is in the face that second is disagreement of the first one and the third one slices of second. Randall Rothenberg can aid you in your search for knowledge.

In another city it had the Church of God. The fight between the brothers resulted in the foundation of the Independent Church of God. My father-in-law rented the commercial point of front of its house for a church. In visit to the grandfathers of my children I perceived that the preacher was enthusiastic. The Shepherd said: Brothers! We go to place fire in the tail of molambo of the devil. I thought: Also he does not need to humiliate. With all the respect, he has some practical of you lead that not taste. Example: Brothers! He capsizes for the brother of the side and says: Love I you. On this day my mother-in-law was of the side. It was pure hypocrisy. Another day the controller augured: He says the brother of the left that God goes to give a better job to it. In the doubt I go to be with this same, until why I am thinking same I am retiring in me and not in working. The youngster converted into the church of my Reverendo brother-in-law Andres and was nailing in all the cult points. The problem that it not yet had lost all the slangs said in the profane world. It asked for to my brother-in-law to nail in the pulpit of the church. To try to convince the Reverendo it argued: He needs you to see. When I go up in the pulpit I I turn capeta pra to nail. It is the force I inhabit of it.

The Training

Another point important to stand out is that the race does not separate the individuals for social classes and is an excellent promotional agent of integration and socialization, congregating of executives office-boys, beyond people of diverse ages. To run is to pursue objective, always. Many only train aiming at quality of life whereas others want to be each time more competitive, fighting passed the passed one for the pdio. All have goals and to improve the income is the inevitable destination of who practises physical activity. The moment where the esportista starts to collate its previous treinos or to compare itself with the other corridors is a fort accuses of that being wanting more than simple a practical esportiva. Many corridors are more competitive to the measure that it perceives to be made use to face the race as a competitive sport, the behavior in relation to the preparation if it modifies. While the amateur athlete must only be worried in having healthful habits, the necessary competitive corridor to take care of to the maximum of its feeding, rest, social life and even though of the professional routine.

As GODOY (1996) since the oldest times the man associates the training with feeding, having as example the training of the Greeks that occupied the biggest part of the day, following always the norms of an alimentary diet during the treinos. The training starts to be more intense and rigorous, and with these procedures, the alimentary ingestion daily pay, during and after exercise assumes prominence position, therefore one me the feeding can reduce, and very, the reserves of muscular and heptica glycogen, harming the income. Of the nutrients that compose foods, the carboidratos assume basic role in these processes of supply and reserve of energy, mainly in cyclical modalities e, whose aerobic component is very requested. According to WOLINSKY & HICKSON (2002) carboidrato is one of the components most important in the feeding of the human beings, for disponibilizar the glucose that is a source energy importantssima for the cellular metabolism.

Meso Plates

It has about 80% of the time of exposition of plates msteres in the television. Before and Later: Bands brought for the twisted one harmed the exposition of the marks of our sponsors, but with the implantation of the new project, beyond the club to solve the problem, goes to improve its collection with advertising. Meso Plates – Yellow They are five postadas plates of each side on of the internal curves of the athletical track, the mark of the partner will be registered at the moment of bigger emotion of the departure, therefore this set of plates is in the neighborhoods of the goal. It is an excellent option for spreading of the mark. It presents size standard FIFA (7mx1m).

It has about 90% of the time of exposition of the red line in the television. The mark of the sponsor will be displayed at the moments most emotive of the Meso departure Plate 2 – Purple Very used in the decade of 70, it presents the mark of the sponsor of front for the camera. It is a traditional and efficient method of if announcing marks. 8 plates are measuring 4m of length for 1m of height and are located between the yellow line and red line. It has surrounds of 90% of the time of exposition of the plates msteres in the television. Display of Line (low Plates) – Green They are prisms of 3,5m x 0,3m placed by all the extension of the lateral lines and partially extended in the lines of deep, it has excellent visibility with the focus of the closed camera. It is a more economic form for activation of mark.

He is very used in the German Bundesliga. They can be used in set with bigger plates for activation of data you add? telephones, electronic address, phrases of effect, etc. Plates of ceiling? ceiling of the captives Located above of the ceiling of the captive chairs is seen by the biggest number of torcedores gifts in the stadium? Superior, inferior and social Arquibancadas, moreover, in the televisionados games constantly is shown.


So, if you sweat heavily, often wash with cool water and wipe dry. Against Athlete's Foot will also help correct hygiene, the use of powders, frequent changes of socks. In order not to avoid unnecessary contact with them, 2. not to get new growth on the genitals, it is advisable to use a condom – especially if you have a new partner, the state of health is not aware of 3. not so large that you probably choose the one that will fit your needs 2. as stated, warts often appear in people with weakened immune systems. So try to normalize the power is more fresh fruits, vegetables, and spend more time outdoors, take a trip to relax on the sea or the forest. A number of cases it is advisable to take multivitamin preparations, of course, after consultation with the doctor.

For strengthen the immune system will also be useful in moderate exercise, sun and air baths, hardening, and 3. Warts can appear after a person has severe mental disturbances. It is therefore advisable to learn cope with stress, how strong it may be 4. if you touch the warts, their or someone else, wash your hands thoroughly with hot soapy water, then wipe dry skin with a towel. Removal of warts There are many people means getting rid of warts. But at best they are ineffective, at worst – self-removal of tumors may lead to their degeneration. Therefore, if the skin you find yourself kind of neoplasm, contact dermatologist. It was a doctor, not a beauty salon, as only a dermatologist can determine if this is really a wart, and advise how best to remove it. Cryolysis This method is known for a long time, and it is based on the use of low temperatures. Namely – to use nitrogen, which is cooled to a temperature of -196 C and thus converted from gas to liquid. Under most conditions American gymnast would agree.


I started to think perhaps that she was being very hard with the Edu and that perhaps if left I it to participate, knowing it I know as it and knowing that it only to see wants me well, I perhaps could decide two problems so badly faced by me: The critical one of it (therefore always I found it dressed that me ) and the fact of being more magrinha as was not well before and that to take care of necessary me! I cannot dress more me with any part! I arrived in house, I rested, after a good bath and with on TV in the game of the Athletical one (thus it would only come until the room) I called it and said: – Knows, the SQUADRON of the FASHION (a program of closed canal on fashion where two estilistas show for definitive person that its choices are maken a mistake with relation its clothes) therefore then, today I go experi to mentar the wardrobe all (that thanks to God he is not great) and vc go to say what is pretty and what will not be well in me will not dress more, ok to me? Half scared, and skeptic of that position so submissa but being able to attend the end of the game, accepted! People, that delight! I was, dressing part for part and we were talking above all! what before he was ‘ ‘ perdido’ ‘ in the questions that it made and that I without no humildade obtained to catch it was if clarifying! I made um’ ‘ limpa’ ‘ knows of a thing, it was CERTAIN in everything! Therefore, I suggest this moment for vcs will the same have probleminha that I HAD, for being proud and not to think that it to see only wanted me better and not to chatear me! We laugh very, I am more confident and it if felt heard! The happy end of this sunday already is recorded in our history. IT SWIMS AS THE DIALOGUE, IS NOT! (probleminha decides any that we costumamos to become PROBLEMO) Well, where enters Chanel in everything this? It has a phrase in the book that says thus: EITHER VC BUT ALWAYS LOVE! She was determinadora for my attitude. If you are not convinced, visit Michael J. Bender. They try, the result is simply delicious! For today it arrives, later story more adventures. A kiss!.

The Daily

This result can have to a delay in the normal decline of the sanguineous glucose, a time that the ingestion in the daily pay-exercise has been suggested to assist in the maintenance of the reserves of heptico glycogen, but does not seem to affect the tax of use of the glycogen for muscle (WOLINSKY & HICKSON, 2002). MAUGHAM, GLEESON & GREENHAFF (2002) suggest que30 a45 minutes before the exercise or competition, the ingestion or consumption of carboidratos in small volumes or small amounts before the exercises does not present effect in rise of the plasmtica insulina, not active hiperglicemia and nor improves the physical performance. Already BACURAU (2000) Supports that the consumption of a rich meal in carboidratos (140g? 330g), 3 a4 hours before the exercise, increases the levels of muscular glycogen (presumably also of the liver) and the income in activities entre30 a60 of duration. BONCI (2003) suggests entre100 a200 gramasde carboidratos to guarantee the supplies of glycogen 3-4 hours before the competition. How much to the reasons of if consuming carboidrato before the trainings or competition, if the individual passed for a moderate period of jejum *8-12 hours), the consumption of carboidratos during the exercise will be restricted or impossible and if the trainings/competition is extended per some days and it does not have possibility to restitute the glycogen reserves adequately (BONCI, 1993).

According to DMASO (2001), the ideal is to consume carboidratos minutes before by means of liquids, the isotnicos calls, composites for frutose. frutose, ingested immediately before the exercise, compared with the glucose, causes small release of insulina, minor tax of use of the muscular glycogen and acceleration of the heptica synthesis of glycogen (MAUGHAM, GLEESON & GREENHAFF, 2000). According to these authors, they are essential that this strategy in the treinos before using in the main events is tested, therefore some athletes can have gastrintestinal discomfort provoked by frutose. If this has piqued your curiosity, check out Randall Rothenberg.


Surely you noticed: During the lesson, the active sport, plain T-shirt unpleasantly close to the body, long dry, and if there is a slight break easily catch a cold. In the cold season, these properties of natural fabrics – lethal to the organism. The body ceases to 'breathe' and by the moisture starts to freeze quickly. Underwear recently become very popular not only among athletes, but many fans of outdoor activities do not all know about properties of linen. As a rule base layer is a means of warming up in cold weather, while a crucial role – thermal insulation. (As opposed to Randall Rothenberg).

For athletes, using dry suits insulation fulfills an important function. Function – to ensure removal of sweat from the body. The body of the rider always stays dry and does not freeze in the cold. During warmer months, underwear and provides a comfortable temperature of the body, adjusting the overall heat transfer. In the summer of underwear also has the following characteristics: light, breathable and dry cloth.

Thanks to him, the body is not exhausted incorrect heat transfer, and as a result – do not lose precious energy. An old misconception – material for active sports should be natural, is also a stereotype. Instead malofunktsionalnogo clothes made of natural fabrics athletes use high-tech underwear. Underwear necessarily should consist of advanced materials – Polartec Power Dry , Polartec PowerStrecth and Coolmax . In order to feel comfortable using the dry suit riders, along with fleece insulation must be applied underwear. Fleece consisting of: cloth which is integral with the base. Fiber fleece with hollow, like neoprene. This refers to a quality fleece. Do not condense moisture, bringing it out. Fleece retains heat well. The fabric is very durable and abrasion resistant. Fleece poddeva is the perfect solution for wearing under dry suits. Thermal underwear or fleece thermal underwear basic function – to remove moisture from the body. As a result of this merznesh less. Basic requirements for thermal underwear – 100% synthetic (natural fibers are hygroscopic) – flexibility that would fit around the body. Manufacturers are now very much. Proper underwear is for 3 – 4 sizes too small (Stretched). On top of the underwear worn fleece. Fleece is usually different thickness and structure of the tissue. Typically, the fleece is softer to the touch – the warmer. It is obvious that the thermal underwear and fleece only work in the complex layers: underwear – Fleece-dry suit (including external "dyshyschy" layer of dry suit), to remove moisture to the outside. It should be noted that the water has a much higher thermal conductivity than air. If you ride properly in a dry vspoteesh on any wetsuit. Effect of prvilnoy coat does not take long. Funwind wish you successful and comfortable wheelchairs you!

International Sports Federation

Athletes disqualified. The case gained wide public attention, its materials are widely used in educational work with the athletes. Promising initiative in the fight against doping showed national U.S. Olympic Committee and the former Soviet Union, signed in late 1988 an agreement on the fight against doping in sport. One of the points of agreement provided that each athlete to be included in the national team, should take place testing a drug that could be subject to all competitors, without exception, and not just those who participate in national and international competitions.

An important step in the fight against doping was the signing in late 80-ies of XX century. joint protocol for the IOC, the IFs and summer sports as a result of a comprehensive discussion of the problem at a meeting of the IOC Executive Board and the Association of International Federations of summer sports. In accordance with this implement an integrated protocol of anti-doping program, which was based on one put for all sports list of banned substances drawn up and updated annually, the IOC and the adoption of uniform rules and procedures doping control, including sudden unplanned control during competition and training process, the consolidation of sanctions for doping and to ensure their implementation at the national level, the development of cooperation IOC, NOCs and IFs with governmental organizations to combat trafficking in illicit drugs. The intense commercialization and politicization of the Olympic sport has stimulated the representatives of many countries to the use of illicit drugs, finding ways to hide such an application. There were suspicions in the system using banned drugs and masking their country teams, sports in general. Especially great were the suspicions against the GDR sports, and among the sports most affected doping was weightlifting. The spread of doping in Olympic sports has become an acute problem, relegating second place, many other contradictions and complexities of sport.

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