The learner that launches a new learning is done from concepts, concepts, representations and knowledge that has built on its previous experience. It is a distinction between what the learner is capable of doing and just learn and what he is capable of doing and learn with the help of others, observing them, imitating them, according to their instructions, or collaborating with them. The key is not whether learning has to give priority to the content or processes, but in ensuring that to be meaningful. The distinction between meaningful learning and repetitive learning, affects the link between the new learning material and prior knowledge of the learner. To make the learning meaningful, they have met two conditions:-first, the content has to be potentially significant, both from the point of view of its internal structure (logical significance: should not be arbitrary or confusing), as from the point of view of their assimilation (psychological significance: there should be in the psychological structure of the learner, relevant and display elements). -Secondly it has to have a favourable attitude to learn significantly, the learner has to be motivated to relate what they learn with what you already know. -The significance of learning is very directly linked with its functionality. The acquired knowledge, concepts, skills, values, norms are functional, that can be effectively used as the circumstances in which the learner is has to be a constant concern of education.
-The process through which produces significant learning needs intense activity by the learner, which established relations between the new content and the items already available in your cognitive structure. -It is necessary to proceed to a reconsideration of the role usually attributed to memory on school learning. It must distinguish between mechanical and repetitive, memorization that has little or nothing of interest for significant learning, comprehensive memorization, whereas, conversely, a vital ingredient in this. -Learning to learn is, without a doubt, the most ambitious objective, since it is equivalent to being able to perform meaningful learning by oneself in a wide range of situations and circumstances. -The cognitive structure of the learner is conceivable as a set of schema of knowledge. Schemas are an organized body of knowledge, they may include both knowledge and rules for use, can be composed of references to other schemas and can be general or specific. The modification of patterns of knowledge of the learner is the goal of education.
These principles and ideas set the constructivist conception of learning and teaching. Constructivism is not a theory psychological in the strict sense, nor a theory psychology that gives us an explanation complete, accurate and proven empirically, you learn how learners and which can prove infallible prescriptions about how has proceed to teach them better. Unfortunately, psychology, or education, school psychology, or the teaching have assumed still this high level of development and elaboration.