Columbia University in the City of New York

Reciprocating Compressors

Reciprocating compressors – the most common and diverse on mechanical completion, schemes and layouts, they are distinguished on the device of a crank mechanism, device or arrangement of cylinders, number of compression stages. Reciprocating compressors are widely used in machine building, textile industry, chemical, refrigeration and cryogenic technology. Reciprocating compressors can be: Crosshead – with Double suction and beskreytskopfnye – unilateral suction (up to 100kW). For location of the compressor cylinders are divided into vertical, horizontal and angular. To include a vertical machine cylinders arranged vertically.

When horizontal cylinder can be placed on one side of the crankshaft, such compressors are called horizontal-way location cylinders, and on both sides of the shaft – horizontal with double cylinder arrangement. By angular compressors are machines with cylinders arranged in the same ranks as vertically, in other – horizontally. Such Compressors are called rectangular. By angular compressors are machines with inclined cylinders set V-shaped and W-shaped (compressors called the Y and W-shaped). Progressive development reciprocating compressors was the transition to the oppositely performance compressors large and medium capacity. Reciprocating compressors, which are horizontal machines with oncoming traffic, and piston arrangement of cylinders on both sides of the shaft, are highly dynamic balance, smaller and lighter.

Due to its advantages of reciprocating compressor is almost completely replaced traditional type of large-scale horizontal compressor. For machines of small and medium-performance core is a rectangular type compressors and compressors with V-shaped arrangement of cylinders. On the number of steps compression compressors different one-, two-and multistage. Multistage compression caused by the need to limit the temperature of compressed gas. In the air compressor is a risk of ignition and explosion Oil sludge accumulating in the pipes, the compressor cover and surfaces of valves, so the temperature of discharge air must not exceed 453K. Reciprocating compressors with labyrinths. Compressors run without piston rings and oil-free, sealing is achieved by grooves cut into the surfaces of the piston and cylinder. Seal of the cylinder and piston as a labyrinth type. Maze, which reduces the leakage of gas, is carried out in the form of circular grooves. Gaps in the labyrinth of the smallest possible taking into account thermal strains in the cylinder. Must be considered that the leakage is proportional to the diameter of the piston velocity sound in the gas temperature in the cylinder and the pressure ratio before and after the maze

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